1. Application due to soil. Soil conditions are closely related to phosphate fertilizer efficiency. In soils with low organic matter and low available phosphorus, the application of phosphate fertilizer to most crops can increase yield. Therefore, phosphorus fertilizer should be distributed to soils with low organic matter and phosphorus deficiency to fully exert fertilizer efficiency. For example, the application of phosphate fertilizer in red soil dry fields, yellow mud fields, duck hoe fields, cold immersion fields, etc., is particularly significant. In addition, soil conditions should also be considered in the selection of phosphate fertilizer varieties. In neutral and calcareous alkaline soils, it is preferred to use a slightly acidic water-soluble phosphate fertilizer superphosphate; in acidic soils, a weakly alkaline calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer should be used.

2. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are combined. According to experiments on wheat, the combined application of NPK was 16.5% higher than that of single application of phosphorus, 10.5% higher than that of single application of nitrogen, and 6.4% higher than that of nitrogen and phosphorus. The combination of NPK can promote each other and maintain nutritional balance. The fertilizer utilization rate can generally be increased by 20%-30%.

3. Mixed application with organic fertilizer. The combination of phosphate fertilizer and organic fertilizer can reduce the adsorption and fixation of phosphorus in soil, promote the release of insoluble phosphorus, enhance the vitality of root system, and help to improve the efficiency of phosphate fertilizer.

4. Due to application. Different crops have different phosphorus demand and absorption capacity. Practice has proved that beans, rapeseed, wheat, cotton, potatoes, melons and fruit trees are all phosphorous crops, and the application of phosphate fertilizer has better fertilizer efficiency. Especially for legume crops, which are sensitive to phosphorus reaction, the application of phosphate fertilizer can significantly increase the yield and nitrogen fixation, and play the role of “phosphorus-increasing nitrogen”.

5. Appropriate application. The critical period of crop phosphorus demand is the seedling stage, and this period of application can maximize efficiency. If the phosphorus deficiency in the seedling stage will affect the later growth, it is difficult to recover the loss of phosphorus deficiency even if it is applied later. Therefore, phosphate fertilizer should be used as base fertilizer, seed fertilizer, fertilization in the field and seedbed, roots and early topdressing.

6, sieve fine application. Calcium superphosphate is easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate during storage. When applied, it is broken and sieved to facilitate root absorption.

7. Centralized application. Phosphorus is easily fixed by iron, aluminum, calcium, etc. in the soil, and the utilization rate in the season is only 10%-25%, especially in various clay soils. If phosphate fertilizer is applied, the fertilizer efficiency cannot be fully exerted. The centralized application method such as point application, strip application, seed dressing and rooting can be applied to the root layer of dense soil, which can reduce the contact surface of phosphate fertilizer and soil, reduce the fixation of phosphorus and improve the utilization rate.

8. Layered application. Phosphate fertilizer has little mobility in the soil, and where it is applied is basically where it is. Therefore, phosphate fertilizer should be applied to the bottom layer and the superficial layer. Generally, 20-40 kg of phosphate fertilizer is applied per mu, one third of the shallow layer is applied, and two thirds of the deep layer is applied.

9. Spray outside the roots. Foliar spray is applied to the super-calcium phosphate leaching solution, which has the characteristics of less fertilizer, quick fertilizer efficiency and high utilization rate. The spraying time is better when spraying each time in the booting and filling stages. Cereal crops can be used at a concentration of 1% to 3%, and vegetables can be applied at a concentration of 1% on a sunny morning or evening.

10, with the application of micro-fertilizer. At the same time of rational phosphorus application, on the wheat, 1 kg of zinc fertilizer and 0.5 kg of boron fertilizer are added per mu, and the yield increase effect is better.

11. Moderate application. Although the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer is low in the current season, its aftereffect is very long. Generally, it can be used for 2 to 3 一次 at a time. Therefore, when the phosphate fertilizer is applied more at one time, it is not necessary to apply phosphate fertilizer to each crop, and it is generally applied once every 1-2 years.

12. Do not mix with alkaline fertilizer. Both plant ash and lime are strong alkaline substances. If mixed, the effectiveness of phosphate fertilizer will be significantly reduced. Generally, it should be staggered for 7-10 days. (Chen Maochun)

From: Hubei Science and Technology News
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