What is the "third industrial revolution" "The third industrial revolution" is becoming a hot word, not only a scholar like Rifkin, but also an in-depth study of it, the well-known media like "The Economist" also Gives a high degree of attention. In fact, the third industrial revolution has become a means for many European countries to achieve further economic growth in the future, and other countries have also felt this trend, hoping to achieve sustained economic growth. But for most ordinary people, the "third industrial revolution" is still a very vague concept. Different scholars have different understandings of the concept of the third industrial revolution. For this reason, Rifkin first made a definition of the "third industrial revolution" when interviewed by the Economic Information Daily. Rifkin believes that the so-called "industrial revolution", with reference to the first and second industrial revolutions that have been widely recognized by all walks of life, must contain three major elements: the emergence of new energy technologies, the emergence of new communication technologies, and new The integration of energy and new communication technologies. When new energy and communication technologies emerge, use and integrate, they will greatly change the way people produce, and thus change the way people live. Therefore, Rifkin believes that the "third industrial revolution" is the emergence of the emerging renewable energy technology and Internet technology, and will bring about a huge change in human production methods and lifestyles. He pointed out that when new communication technologies and energy technologies emerge and merge with each other, they will greatly promote economic development. For example, the 19th century world ushered in a fusion of communication technology and energy technology, which is the so-called first revolution. The steam-powered press replaced manual printing, which allowed humans to produce large quantities of print at low cost. At this time, a large number of schools appeared, knowledge was spread, and new economic models were emerging, eventually creating dense urban core areas and factories that had risen to the ground. In the 20th century, mankind experienced the second fusion of communication technology and energy technology, the second industrial revolution. The emergence of new communication technologies such as television, telephone and radio, as well as the use of new energy sources such as electricity and oil, have dramatically changed the economic shape and people's lives, and have given birth to the prosperity of the real estate industry and industrial areas in the suburbs. “At the moment, we are facing a similar situation, new energy technologies and communication technologies are being integrated, and the results will once again change our economic shape and lifestyle,” Rifkin said. "The reason why the concept of the third industrial revolution will receive more and more attention is because the second industrial revolution is coming to an end, just like sunset." Rifkin said that we are currently facing a global economic crisis. The reason is that the second industrial revolution based on fossil fuels and related technologies has become increasingly thin and can no longer support the development of the world economy. This is because related technologies have lagged behind, and industrial production based on this is becoming less and less efficient. According to Rifkin, according to a study of the peak per capita oil in the world, it appeared in the peak of the second industrial revolution in 1979. Another study conducted by BP and subsequent research confirmed this judgment. More importantly, in mid-2007, when the international oil price exceeded 70 US dollars per barrel, the global economy was already at great risk. The reason is simple. Under the global economic system, any commercial activity is closely related to petroleum fossil energy. In addition, the world faces global climate change, which makes agriculture also face an impact. "So, we have to ask, where do we go from? Obviously, we need to think about this issue with new economic insights, which forces us to propose new development strategies so that industrialized countries and emerging market countries can get rid of this crisis as soon as possible. We need to further reduce carbon emissions by 2040. And this is what we did in the 21st century." "I think we should ask such a question, how will the global industrial revolution happen?" Rifkin replied: " I can't give a road map for Europe, China, or other countries, but if we look at the history before, we will find that when new communication technologies and energy technologies emerge and merge with each other, it will greatly promote economic development. Faced with such an opportunity.” Rifkin told reporters that the third industrial revolution will be completely different from the previous two industrial revolutions and will be the only way to get rid of the economic crisis. He believes that "the communication technologies in the first two industrial revolutions were all "centralized", and the energy production methods and industrial production methods are concentrated production. But the Internet technology in the third industrial revolution is more. It is a point-to-point decentralized technology that will enable decentralized energy production and industrial production. This type of production will be more efficient and create more jobs," Rifkin said. Rifkin said that in order to get rid of the economic crisis, Europe has begun to try the third industrial revolution. Europe plans to provide 20% of renewable energy by 2020, and by 2030, 30% of electricity will come from green energy. This plan is not empty talk, the continuous improvement and use of new technologies, so that the production costs of renewable energy continue to decline. For example, the cost of photovoltaic power generation is expected to fall at a rate of 8% per year, making power generation costs halving every eight years. If global electricity consumption grows at a rate of 5% per year, by 2012, photovoltaic power will reach the average grid price in the entire European market, even below this level. An exciting study shows that the energy produced by the sun's light for one hour is enough to support the global economy for a year. If these energy sources can be used effectively, then new energy sources will undoubtedly become a basis for getting rid of this economic crisis. The five pillars must coordinate the development of Rifkin in the book "The Third Industrial Revolution", and carefully plan the implementation of the third industrial revolution, the most striking of which is the "five pillars" he advocated. . According to him, the European countries including Germany have already developed their own future economic development strategies based on this. In the book, Rifkin introduces five pillars: pillar one, transforming to renewable energy; pillar two, transforming each continent's buildings into micro-power plants to collect renewable energy on the spot; pillar three, in each Hydrogen and other storage technologies are used in buildings and infrastructure to store intermittent energy; Pillar 4, using energy Internet technology to transform each continent's power grid into an energy-sharing network, this shared network works like the Internet; Pillar V, the transportation of tools to plug-in and fuel cell powered vehicles, the electricity required for such electric vehicles can be bought and sold through the intercontinental shared grid platform. Rifkin pointed out that the five pillars were proposed because they would be the key elements in the third industrial revolution. “Pillar 1 is energy itself, and it is also the basis for the integration of new energy technologies and new energy technologies and new communication technologies; pillar 2 is the way energy is produced; pillar 3 is the form of energy storage; pillar 4 is the energy sharing mechanism; pillar 5 is How to use new energy more effectively, and this way will greatly promote the promotion of new energy," Rifkin explained. Rifkin believes that as a key element of the third industrial revolution, the five pillars must be coordinated and cannot be abandoned. Taking the automobile industry in the second industrial revolution as an example, he further illustrated the importance of coordinated development. He introduced that in the first decade of the 20th century, the combination of telecommunications technology and fuel-burning internal combustion engines triggered the second industrial revolution. The electrification of the factory ushered in the era of mass industrial manufactured goods, the most important of which is the emergence of automobiles. Henry Ford's mass production of T-type petrol-powered cars has fundamentally changed the society that was previously limited by time and space. Almost overnight, thousands of people sold their carriages and replaced them with cars. In order to meet the growing demand for fuel, the new oil industry has achieved rapid development. At the same time as the development of the automobile industry, other industries are also developing synergistically. In less than 20 years, cement roads were spread across the United States, and Americans began to relocate, re-establishing their homes in remote villages a few years ago. At the same time, the telephone and the subsequent radios and televisions have reshaped people's lives and spawned a new information network that has allowed people to enter the era of oil and automobiles. Rifkin stressed to reporters that the five pillars must be coordinated and cannot be abandoned. He introduced that in the past few years, he has seen the production and use of new energy sources such as solar energy and hydrogen energy when he visited Italy and Norway. But unfortunately, the current community has put too much energy into the concentrated production of energy. This is the second stage of the industrial revolution. It has been proved that this production method will become more and more not efficient. “In Europe, we have realized the seriousness of this problem. It is impossible to produce new energy sources to help us out of development difficulties. Therefore, the focus of pillar 2 is buildings. Europe has more than 190 million buildings, our goal It is to make most buildings into micro-power plants that can produce energy. In this way, each building can use renewable energy such as solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy to produce electricity according to its own characteristics. Pillar 2 will greatly Promoting the European economy, and more importantly, it will create millions of new jobs," Rifkin said. Rifkin further pointed out that energy storage technology cannot be ignored either because "the sun will not always be bright and the wind will not always be sufficient". Power companies and utility companies have complained to him that when 15% to 20% of the grid, or even more, comes from renewable sources, the grid will be affected by the weather, and the grid will face periodic power outages and power cuts. risks of. Rifkin is not worried about this. He introduced that in fact, at the technical level, the solution to the storage of intermittent energy has been found. Among them, the most mature and feasible technology is the long-term storage material produced by hydrogen. Rifkin said that hydrogen sources are widely available, prices are relatively low, and technology is mature. Astronauts have been flying around the Earth with hydrogen as fuel for nearly 50 years, and it is time to take it back as a renewable energy storage medium. “Europe proposes to spend 9 billion euros to equip buildings with hydrogen and other energy storage equipment.” Rifkin believes that the importance of pillar three has been noted. For emerging communication technologies such as the Internet, Rifkin also values ​​it. He believes that this is about whether renewable energy can be effectively shared and how it will be shared. It will determine whether new energy can be accepted and become the basis for future economic development. Rifkin said that more and more people are expressing interest in establishing an "energy Internet." Large companies such as IBM, Cisco, Siemens, and GM are eager to try and turn the smart grid into a new type of highway that can transport electricity. As a result, the electronic transmission network will become an information energy network, enabling millions of people who self-produce energy to share each other's energy through peer-to-peer networks. “Because the grid current is constantly changing within 24 hours a day, the information distributed on the digital meters in each building will be dynamically priced so that consumers can automatically adjust the electricity consumption based on price changes. Consumers who accept electricity adjustments will enjoy the corresponding benefits. At the same time, dynamic pricing will also encourage energy producers to grasp the best time to recover current." Rifkin explained the operation mechanism of the energy Internet, so he It also re-emphasizes the importance of new communication technologies such as the Internet. For Rifkin's collaborative development perspective, some scholars still hold different opinions, arguing that new energy technologies, or new communication technologies, can be developed separately to promote global economic development. In the interview, Rifkin responded to this view. He believes that the development of new energy or new communication technologies alone, although it will promote economic development, it is difficult to produce the effect of "industrial revolution". "New energy will play a very important role in the third industrial revolution, mainly because the basic fossil energy of the second industrial revolution has been unable to support the further development of the global economy. Especially in the high oil prices and geopolitical trends Today, the traditional fossil energy may also limit the development of the economy. Wind energy, solar energy, tidal energy, bio-energy and other new energy sources have great advantages and can be the basis for promoting economic development.” Rifkin continued “ Therefore, we cannot put aside new energy to talk about the third industrial revolution.” In Rifkin’s view, new communication technologies such as the Internet can help decentralized renewable energy production, realize its storage and sharing, and enable utilization. Greatly improved, its role in the five pillars and the third industrial revolution is obvious. “For example, through the Internet, the recording industry has achieved decentralized sales, which has made the recording industry prosper again. With technologies such as the Internet, the cost of decentralized energy production and sharing will be greatly reduced, and it will be among the five pillars. Other factors have been promoted," Rifkin said. Obama’s energy policy is a failure. While further explaining that the five pillars need to be coordinated, Rifkin made an interpretation of the US energy policy. In his view, President Obama’s new energy policy is a failure. “If you only pay attention to one of the five pillars, such as focusing only on energy production in the domestic market, everything will become meaningless. The United States has made a mistake in this regard. President Obama’s new energy policy is wasting billions of dollars. The dollar has made taxpayers’ money squandered. His new energy policy has not produced a fundamental role in promoting economic development. For example, fuel cell production in one state and solar power plant in another, but Not linking these together makes it difficult for these inputs to work alone, let alone promote the economy.” Rifkin showed some disappointment. Rifkin further explained: "I once again use the automotive industry as an example to explain the importance of coordinated development. In the second industrial revolution, the United States did a good job. In addition to automobile manufacturing, a nationwide gas station system was born in the same period. The highway system has also accelerated the process of urbanization and suburban residentialization, which further promoted the construction of the power system. In fact, these are all developed together and will not appear one after another. The policy does not reflect the consideration of coordinated development.” Rifkin repeatedly mentioned the US energy policy. He said that the repeated mention of the US energy policy is to warn other countries. He introduced that on the first day of his appointment, Obama immediately began to solve the economic recovery problem in the United States. The Obama administration linked the issue of economic recovery to the other two major problems facing the country, energy security and subsequent changes. President Obama began to talk about the prospects of a green economy and new job opportunities that might be created. Whenever Obama mentions the green economy recovery plan, he can always come up with a long list of project plans and specific implementation measures that his government will implement or recommend. A significant portion of these programs have received funding from the Obama administration. For example, $11.6 billion was spent on energy efficiency, $6.3 billion on renewable energy, $4.4 billion on grid point-of-care, and $2 billion on plug-in power vehicles and fuel cell technology. But Obama’s policy lacks the vision of coordinated development. Many policies have become a series of experimental plans and shelving projects in front of the American people. He believes that European experience is worth learning. At present, the European Parliament has approved the third industrial revolution and has developed effective planning, and some European countries such as Germany have begun to take action. In May 2007, the European Parliament passed an official declaration that delivered the task of the third industrial revolution to the legislative branch of the EU-27. The strong support of the parliament for the vision of the new economy sends a clear signal to the rest of the world that Europe has embarked on a new economic path. "And the United States does not have a clear policy." Rifkin said that the United States is currently investing in the installation of large, concentrated wind and solar power plants in the Midwest and Southwest. Then an ultra-high voltage power grid is built to transport the electricity generated by these sparsely populated areas to densely populated areas in the east. But sadly, the construction cost of the grid will be distributed to millions of consumers. This policy of centralized production and unified distribution of renewable energy has not been recognized by the eastern states and power companies. In July 2010, the governors of the 11 states of New England and the Mid-Atlantic jointly sent a letter to the US Senate Majority Leader and Minority Leader to oppose this power transmission policy. Many governors believe that this will undermine efforts to promote renewable energy generation in some regions, and it is also not conducive to job creation. Even more frightening is that the project invested up to 160 billion US dollars. "I and many scholars believe that the essence of this economic crisis is actually that the second industrial revolution has been unsustainable. But the Obama administration is not willing to face up to this reality, but has spent countless taxpayers' money to save the banking industry. Through further financial reforms and supervision, the economic crisis may be alleviated, but it cannot be rid of. This is because we have not found the impetus for continued economic development." "But Europe has already seen the situation. Europe plans to, by 2020, Renewable energy consumption, which accounts for 20% of total energy consumption, means that renewable energy will be one-third of Europe's electricity production, while countries such as Germany have begun to transform buildings into micro-power plants. In addition, Daimler The company's hydrogen-powered buses have been put into operation in some cities such as Hamburg, Amsterdam, London, Berlin and Madrid as part of the European Clean Energy Project. In addition, Europe is also discussing interstate energy with non-European countries and African countries in the Mediterranean. The possibility of sharing." Rifkin believes that Europe has become the third Industrial Revolution leader and in the forefront. For other countries, the choice is in sight and its decisions will directly affect the economic prospects of future countries. The selection of the so-called "industrial revolution" must include three major elements: the emergence of new energy technologies, the emergence of new communication technologies, and the integration of new energy and new communication technologies. When new energy and communication technologies emerge, use and integrate, they will greatly change the way people produce, and thus change the way people live. The "third industrial revolution" is the emergence of the emerging renewable energy technology and Internet technology, which will bring about a huge change in human production methods and lifestyles. We are currently facing a global economic crisis. The reason is that the second industrial revolution based on fossil fuels and related technologies has become increasingly thin and can no longer support the development of the world economy. Europe has begun an attempt at the third industrial revolution. Europe plans to provide 20% of renewable energy by 2020, and by 2030, 30% of electricity will come from green energy. An exciting study shows that the energy produced by the sun's light for one hour is enough to support the global economy for a year. If these energy sources can be used effectively, then new energy sources will undoubtedly become a basis for getting rid of this economic crisis. The development of new energy or new communication technologies alone, although it will promote economic development, is difficult to produce the effect of "industrial revolution". The realization of the third industrial revolution, the "five pillars" is very important. Pillar 1, transition to renewable energy; Pillar 2, transforming buildings on every continent into micro-power plants to collect renewable energy on-site; Pillar III, using hydrogen and other storage in each building and infrastructure Technology to store intermittent energy; pillar four, using energy Internet technology to transform each continent's power grid into an energy-sharing network, this shared network works like the Internet; pillar five, turning vehicles into plug-in and fuel Battery-powered vehicles, the electricity required for such electric vehicles can be bought and sold through the intercontinental shared grid platform.

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